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21. Consider the following classics of Marxism—
1. The German Ideology (Marx and Engels)
2. The Paris Commune (Marx)
3. The Critique of the Gotha Programme (Marx)
4. State and Revolution (Lenin)
Which of the above are a strong endorsement of direct democracy ?
(A) 1, 2 and 3
(B) 2, 3 and 4
(C) 1, 3 and 4
(D) 1, 2 and 4
Ans : (A)

22. The concept of civil disobedience is not central in the thought of who of the following ?
(A) John Rawls
(B) M. K. Gandhi
(C) Leo Tolstoy
(D) Michel Foucault
Ans : (A)

23. Which one of the following theories considers democracy not as a government of the people but as ‘the iron law of oligarchy’ ?
(A) The Pluralist
(B) The Marxist
(C) The Elitist
(D) The Idealist
Ans : (C)

24. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists—
List-I (Theories of Democracy)
(a) Elite theory
(b) Pluralist theory
(c) Radical theory
(d) Neo-Liberal theory
List-II (Champions)
1. C. B. Macpherson
2. Robert Nozick
3. Vilfredo Pareto
4. Robert Dahl
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 2 4 1 3
(B) 2 1 4 3
(C) 3 4 1 2
(D) 3 1 4 2
Ans : (C)

25. Consider the following statements—
Liberal feminists advocate:
1. equality before the law for women
2. same rights for men and women
3. special representation for women in decision-making bodies
4. assault on patriarchy
Which of the statements given above are correct ?
(A) 1, 2 and 3 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 3 and 4 only
(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Ans : (B)

26. The public can private spheres came to be strongly demarcated in which one of the following ideological orientations ?
(A) Fascism
(B) Liberalism
(C) Feminism
(D) Marxism
Ans : (C)

27. Which one of the following books makes value and meaning crucial determinants of human action ?
(A) Rousseau’s ‘Discourse on the Origin of Inequality
(B) Marx’s ‘On the Jewish Question’
(C) Weber’s ‘Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism’
(D) Paine’s ‘Rights of Man’
Ans : (C)

28. According to Lenin, what are the three sources of Marxism ?
(A) Russian anarchism, French socialism and British economy
(B) German philosophy, British political economy and French socialism
(C) French philosophy, British economy and German socialism
(D) Hegelian dialectics, Blanqui’s socialism and Ricardo’s political economy
Ans : (B)

29. In which one of the following texts is the concept of ‘dialectics’ examined ?
(A) Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (Lenin)
(B) The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (Marx)
(C) Social Reform or Revolution (Luxemburg)
(D) For Marx (Althusser)
Ans : (A)

30. Consider the following concepts—
1. Epistemological break
2. Relative autonomy of the superstructure
3. Economy in the last instance
4. Paradigm shift Althusser is credited with which of the above concepts ?
(A) 1, 2 and 3
(B) 1, 3 and 4
(C) 1, 2 and 4
(D) 2, 3 and 4
Ans : (A)

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